Discussion Paper Series 2009-E-32

Generalized Extreme Value Distribution with Time-Dependence Using the AR and MA Models in State Space Form

Jouchi Nakajima, Tsuyoshi Kunihama, Yasuhiro Omori, Sylvia Früwirth-Scnatter

A new state space approach is proposed to model the time-dependence in an extreme value process. The generalized extreme value distribution is extended to incorporate the time-dependence using a state space representation where the state variables either follow an autoregressive (AR) process or a moving average (MA) process with innovations arising from a Gumbel distribution. Using a Bayesian approach, an efficient algorithm is proposed to implement Markov chain Monte Carlo method where we exploit a very accurate approximation of the Gumbel distribution by a ten-component mixture of normal distributions. The methodology is illustrated using extreme returns of daily stock data. The model is fitted to a monthly series of minimum returns and the empirical results support strong evidence for time-dependence among the observed minimum returns.

Keywords: Extreme values; Generalized extreme value distribution; Markov chain Monte Carlo; Mixture sampler; State space model; Stock returns

Views expressed in the paper are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect those of the Bank of Japan or Institute for Monetary and Economic Studies.

Copyright © 2009 Bank of Japan All Rights Reserved.

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