The recent financial crisis teaches important lessons regarding the lender-of-last resort (LLR) function. Large swap lines extended in 2007-08 from the Federal Reserve to other central banks show that the classic concept of a national LLR fails to address key vulnerabilities in a globalized financial system with multiple currencies. What system of emergency international financial support will best help to minimize the likelihood of future economic instability? Acting alongside national central banks, the International Monetary Fund (IMF) has a key role to play in the constellation of LLRs. As the income-level and institutional divergence between emerging and mature economies shrinks over time, the IMF may even evolve into a global LLR that channels central bank liquidity where it is needed. The IMF’s effectiveness would be greatly enhanced by several complementary reforms in international financial governance, though some of these appear politically problematic at the present time.
Keywords: Lender of last resort; Financial crisis; Central banking; International monetary system; International Monetary Fund
Views expressed in the paper are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect those of the Bank of Japan or Institute for Monetary and Economic Studies.